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Building Quality Working Relationships Across the Emergency Services Sector

12/04/2017 - Report Number: 149

Successful interagency partnerships within the emergency sector are vital to ensuring the safety of the New Zealand public. This research aimed to:

  • Provide NZFS with information needed to build quality working relationships across the sector
  • Inform the implementation of future joint initiatives in both major incidents and day-to-day operations

Improving the safety culture and practices of Rural Fire Personnel in relation to near miss reporting

16/03/2017 - Report Number: 158

The aim of this research was to provide NZFSC with information to support the development of safety cultures within Volunteer Rural Fire Forces (VRFF). The NZFSC commissioned Heathrose Research to review the literature, undertake interviews and case studies with VRFFs.

International good practice in safety, health and wellbeing in fire and emergency services

7/12/2016 - Report Number: 153

Safety, health and wellbeing is a priority of the New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS). The service seeks to be world leading in safety, health and wellbeing in fire and emergency services. The NZFS is identifying evidence of good practice in safety, health and wellbeing to strengthen its safety, health and wellbeing system. To inform this process, the NZFS commissioned Litmus to undertake case study research of international jurisdictions considered to have leading or emerging best practice safety, health and wellbeing systems.

Literacy, Numeracy And Communication Skills Among New Zealand Fire Service Volunteers

7/12/2016 - Report Number: 152

Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the types of difficulties volunteer firefighters might have had with literacy, numeracy and/or communication skills that may have compromised essential communication, good operations and/or safety, as identified by Chief Fire Officers or their Deputies.

Development of an integrated framework to assess after fire

7/12/2016 - Report Number: 151

Estimating the total economic cost of wildfires is critical for justifying the investment in rural fire management activity measures (Reduction, Readiness, Response and Recovery) undertaken to mitigate the economic losses incurred during a wildfire event and the consequences suffered by society.

Impacts of changes in provision of hand-operated firefighting equipment in non-residential buildings

08/08/2016 - Report Number: 148

Purpose: Hand-operated equipment (fire extinguishers, fire hose reels and fire blankets) are
commonly provided in buildings for occupants to use as an immediate first line of
defence against smaller fires. This study:

  • quantifies the costs and benefits of providing this equipment for various
    types of non-residential buildings
  • examines possible future changes in the level of provision of this equipment
    under possible regulatory and non-regulatory approaches
  • evaluates the impact on fire damage

Home Fire Safety Checks Evaluation Phase 1

08/08/2016 - Report Number: 147

Purpose: This evaluation examined the effectiveness and impact of the Home Fire Safety Check (HFSC) programme, a key plank of the New Zealand Fire Service’s (NZFS) efforts to reduce fire risk by directly engaging householders in their own homes. HFSCs primary audiences are at-risk groups, including low income households, Community Services Card holders, and homes with young children and/ or elderly people.

Diversity in the Community versus Diversity in the NZFS: who is missing and why?

08/08/2016 - Report Number: 142

Purpose: This research aimed to explore differences between the operational and volunteer workforce; the extent to which the NZFS reflects the demographic diversity of New Zealand; barriers to the recruitment, retention and progression of a more diverse workforce; and best practice approaches to enhancing workplace diversity. The findings suggest that the NZFS' workforce is not as demographically diverse as the NZ population. Other qualitative findings found several differences between recruitment, training and progression processes in the operational compared to volunteer workforce.

Micro-simulation Model for Household Fire Risk Identifications

18/05/2016 - Report Number: 130

Purpose: To investigate the potential for micro-simulation modelling to improve New Zealand Fire Service’s understanding of present and future residential structure fire risk by fire station first response area and meshblock. Projecting the distribution of residential fire risk under different fire risk management interventions will help NZFS cost-effectively achieve the desired outcome of reducing the consequence of fire.  Micro-simulation modelling could also have utility in the operational area, specifically in fire-fighting resource allocation.

Evaluating Effective Methods of Engaging School-Leavers in Adopting Safety Behaviours

25/02/2016 - Report Number: 146

While young adults aged between 18 and 24 years make up a significant proportion of those involved in unsafe fire behaviour, research into this group is sparse. This project aimed to gain information from a range of groups (secondary school and university students, the New Zealand Fire Service, the New Zealand Police, the University of Otago Proctor and Deputy Proctor, the University of Otago Students’ Association and Social Marketers) on the best ways to engage young adults in safe fire behaviour, to be used in the development of new safety campaigns targeted at this group. Surveys and focus groups were conducted.

Describing Wildfire Prone Areas in the New Zealand Context

12/04/2017 - Report Number: 134

Identification of wildfire prone areas will help reduce the number and consequences of wildfires by enabling fire authorities and councils to prioritise activities such as fire prevention, fuel reduction and ‘FireSmart’ communities, and to improve planning and building regulations for high fire risk areas.

Home Fire Safety Checks Evaluation Phase 2

01/12/2015 - Report Number: 145

The evaluation examined the effectiveness and impact of the Home Fire Safety Check (HFSC) programme, a key plank of the New Zealand Fire Service’s (NZFS) efforts to reduce fire risk by directly engaging householders in their own homes. HFSCs primary audiences are at-risk groups, including low income households, Community Services Card holders, and homes with young children and/ or elderly people. Phase 1 of the evaluation (2014) established evidence of HFSC programme progress against key strategic outcomes (see Home Fire Safety Check Evaluation Phase 1 Report). Phase 2 updated the data baseline identified in Phase 1, and, in particular, explored further the lessons identified in Phase 1 on delivery method and best practice partnership models.

The prevalence and fire safety implications of Early Childhood Centres in multi-story buildings

04/11/2015 - Report Number: 144

Early childhood centres (ECC) are increasingly being located in multi-story buildings. This report indicates that between 50 and 80 ECC have children located above ground floor level, and NZ Fire Service is interested in the regulation of these centres for fire safety. International practice for these centres was examined and generally New Zealand regulation compares quite well with overseas jurisdictions. The main concern is with fire drills. Advanced notice trial evacuations are not necessarily a realistic model for what could happen in an actual fire. The report recommends more realistic evacuations should be run to identify any potential problems with equipment, training and procedures. Some recommendations are also made about fire design and location of ECC which would require changes to the building regulations.

Scenario Tool for Allocating Resources (STAR)

04/11/2015 - Report Number: 143

For this research project, Navigatus Consulting developed and piloted a Scenario Tool for Allocating Resources (STAR). The purpose of STAR is to enable Rural Fire Authority decision-makers to make more informed and strategic decisions on the allocation of firefighting equipment within their district and reduce the time taken for adequate initial response to arrive to vegetation fire events.

Navigatus developed the initial version of STAR to be piloted in the Marlborough/Kaikoura Rural Fire District and consulted extensively with the Marlborough/Kaikoura Rural Fire Authority while building and modifying the tool.

Safe or Trapped?

18/02/2015 - Report Number: 141

Older people’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards home security and the fire evacuation risks they impose.


Older people hold inaccurate and negative views about crime levels. In spite of the drop in the crime rate over the last ten years, older people do not feel safe in their homes. Furthermore, while crime figures show that victims of crime are more likely to be younger people older people believe they are more vulnerable to intruders in their homes.

Minimum Fitness Recommendations for Rural Fire Personnel

05/12/2014 - Report Number: 133
The physically demanding nature of forest and rural firefighting requires firefighters to be physically fit to minimise fatigue and work competently. In some parts of the world firefighting agencies employ physical competency tests to determine if firefighters are fit for duty. A requirement of the National Rural Fire Authority (NRFA) is that Rural Fire Authorities ensure personnel can carry out the tasks required of them in a safe manner, including being adequately equipped and trained physically for the most demanding tasks.

The Value of Fire Stations and the Management of Relocations From a Community Perspective

10/11/2014 - Report Number: 140
The New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS) commissioned Kaitiaki Research and Evaluation to carry out community engagement research to understand community concerns arising from past station relocations and how these concerns could be better addressed in the future. The study employed a participatory qualitative approach and comprised a combination of a thematic and content analysis, semistructured focus groups and in-depth qualitative interviews with key community stakeholders in three locations in which a brigade had relocated recently: Katikati, Te Atatu and Takapuna.

Get Out! Stay Out! Evaluation

06/11/2014 - Report Number: 132
Overall Get Out! Stay Out! has performed at a very good to excellent standard in relation to the evaluation questions. The evaluation was conducted between May 2013 and April 2014.

Exploring Digital Approaches for Improving Safety Behaviour in Older People

07/01/2014 - Report Number: 139
There is evidence that increasing proportions of older people are using the internet and social media, and this is likely to continue to increase as a new generation of older people are moving into retirement who will have used social media in their working and personal lives.

What motivates people in small rural communities to become Volunteer Rural Fire Fighters?

11/12/2013 - Report Number: 138
Changing land use, fewer people on farms and in rural communities in New Zealand are a fact of life. As a result, attracting and keeping people in the Volunteer Rural Fire Forces (VRFF) is a challenge for some forces and likely to become a greater one for others in the future given the aging demographic.

Risk factors and offending behaviours among children and adolescents who deliberately light fires

04/03/2014 - Report Number: 137
The study draws upon longitudinal data on child firesetters who were referred to the New Zealand Fire Service Fire Awareness and Intervention Programme (FAIP) and investigates the relationship between conduct problems, firesetting behaviour and subsequent offending, to gain a better understanding of the risk factors for firesetting and offending behaviours amongst a firesetting population.

Attitudes to Fire and Safety in Families with Newborn Babies

07/03/2014 - Report Number: 136
In New Zealand, several population groups are more vulnerable to house fire fatalities and injuries, including children under the age of 5. Research undertaken for the Fire Service in 2010 recommended intervening at times of change in life-cycles to motivate fire safe behaviour in vulnerable populations.

Communicating Fire Safety Messages to New Migrants

09/05/2014 - Report Number: 135
This research is designed to improve fire outcomes for new migrants and refugee groups with little or no English language skills and unfamiliarity with New Zealand culture and fire safety practices.

Delivery mechanisms for hard to reach groups

11/12/2013 - Report Number: 131
The New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS) surveys households and individuals from time to time as part of its monitoring of their behaviours in response to fire incidents and the Service’s fire education and fire safety programmes.

An Evaluation of the ‘Be Firewise’ Programmes for Year 7 and 8, and Senior Secondary School Students

30/08/2013 - Report Number: 129
The New Zealand Fire Service Commission (the Commission) contracted MartinJenkins to undertake an evaluation of the ‘Be Firewise’ programme which consists of two school-based fire safety programmes (one aimed at Year 7 and 8 students, and one aimed at senior secondary school students in Years 11-13).

Fire Safety Features in Housing

30/08/2013 - Report Number: 128
The research studied trends in fire safety features in the housing stock and the costs associated with mitigating fire hazards.

Quantifying the change in high country fire hazard from wilding trees

31/07/2013 - Report Number: 127
The effects of wilding conifer spread and their control on fire behaviour have not been previously studied in New Zealand. There is a noticeable lack of research to date on how fire hazards change over time with wilding invasions, or comparing fire behaviour pre and post wilding control.

Economic Costs of Fire in Non-Residential Buildings

02/04/2013 - Report Number: 126
Between 2007 and 2011, 13,196 fire incidents occurred in New Zealand. One in three of these incidents, or 4,299 fires, were in non-residential buildings. This project determines the economic costs of these fires.

Developing a methodology for establishing a stronger line of sight between expenditure and outcomes

02/04/2013 - Report Number: 125
This paper outlines a framework to assist in monitoring performance and making better informed decisions about how and where resources are invested in public education programmes.

Fire System Effectiveness in Major Buildings

07/05/2012 - Report Number: 124
This study examines the effectiveness of fire protection systems in major buildings.

Impact of Emerging Social Change and Technological Developments on Fire Service Operations

20/03/2012 - Report Number: 121
A combination of social and technological changes are widening the risks society faces from fire and other emergencies, but are also presenting new opportunities for the NZFS to achieve its mission to reduce the “incidence and consequence” of fire more cost effectively.

Te Ahi Kaa - Keeping our Marae safe from fire

05/12/2011 - Report Number: 120
Marae are our integral to Maori cultural identity and wellbeing and are important to the socio-cultural fabric of New Zealand society. Yet every year, “five marae fires are reported to the New Zealand Fire Service”. These fires are preventable.

Community Self-Reliance Report

30/11/2011 - Report Number: 119
New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS) incident statistics indicate that campaigns to encourage people to call 111, and other fire safety education initiatives, can lead to increases in false alarm callouts.

Effectiveness of Digital Media and Social Networking for Reaching At-risk Groups

01/09/2011 - Report Number: 118
The overall purpose of this project was to quantify the use of social networking and/or digital media among at-risk groups and to explore how effective these might be in conveying fire safety messages.

Project Re-kindled

01/09/2011 - Report Number: 117
The purpose of this research was to provide a springboard for creative development that encourages fire safety behaviours and in doing so reduces the incidence and consequences of fire in New Zealand.

Fire Climate Severity Across New Zealand

01/04/2011 - Report Number: 116
The objective of this study was to provide improved information on fire climate severity across New Zealand.

Fire design for aging residential occupancies

01/10/2011 - Report Number: 115
The main focus of this report is discussion of what differences there would be in residential fire safety design to account buildings that are targeted to older segments of our community compared to general residential buildings, where there is a wider distribution of ages of the intended occupancy.

Can vegetation flammability and wildfire hazard indices predict fire extent?

01/02/2011 - Report Number: 114
This project used a statistical modelling approach to determine if vegetation flammability and wildfire hazard indices can predict fire extent.

Building Resilience: Engaging with Rural Communities about Fire Safety: A review of a range of community engagement processes trialled in selected southland rural communities

01/04/2011 - Report Number: 113
This Southland-based research was designed to improve fire safety outcomes for rural communities whose vulnerability to fire is increased by their low population density and physical remoteness, coupled with recent social and economic changes.

Alcohol and Fire: A Strategic Review

01/08/2011 - Report Number: 112
This report details the New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS) strategies to minimise the risk of fire associated with alcohol consumption and determine if current NZFS strategies are appropriate, effective; and are aligned with best practice approaches undertaken by other government and non-government agencies.

Sprinklers for Community Buildings and Places of Special or Historical Interest

01/08/2011 - Report Number: 111
This report describes a project that investigated the design of a sprinkler system for community buildings, which would otherwise not require a sprinkler system, to be installed as part of the building consent process.

Project Kindle: Applying the Conversion Model to Changing At Risk Groups Attitudes towards Fire Safety

01/10/2010 - Report Number: 110
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify people in at-risk groups who are genuinely open to changing their behaviours and identifying underlying emotive drivers that would most likely convince them to actually make a change

The Impact of Changes in New Zealand’s Demographic Profile on Fire Outcomes

01/10/2010 - Report Number: 109
This project aimed to quantify the link between improved fire outcomes and demographic changes, with a specific focus on urbanisation.

Rural Fire Fighter Exposure to Fireground Gases with Relevance to Physiological Workload and Fire Suppression Productivity

01/10/2010 - Report Number: 108
This research project aims to improve the health and safety of rural fire fighters by determining, under New Zealand operational conditions, the physiological workload of fire fighting tasks.

Metadata Analysis of the NZFS Commission Contestable Research Fund

01/08/2010 - Report Number: 107
BERL has used metadata analysis and economic methodology to undertake a review of the NZFS Commission contestable research fund. The stated purpose of the fund is to advance knowledge in fire prevention and fire management to meet the NZFS Commission’s statutory interest. Between 1998 and 2010, the fund has commissioned research that has advanced fire prevention and fire management knowledge and resulted in over 100 research reports. The research assessment framework established to complete the metadata analysis incorporated economic methodology, principally benefit-cost analysis, with the strategic research framework established by CRESA in 2003. As well as cataloguing the data, the metadata analysis therefore considered the change (benefit) that has occurred as a result of the research.

What impact has the change in building materials and design in housing had on the cost damage of fires

01/02/2010 - Report Number: 106
This report examines whether changes in materials and design of housing over the years have any relationship to fire incidence.

NZ Fire Behaviour Toolkit: User Guide and Technical Report

04/06/2010 - Report Number: 105
This report describes the level of tools that are available to assist fire managers across the country in incorporating fire behaviour information into fire management decision-making.

Assessing the Impact of Vegetation and House Fires on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

01/04/2010 - Report Number: 104
This report investigates the impact of green house gas (GHG) emissions associated with vegetation fires and house fires.

Residential Kitchen Local Fire Protection - Cost Effectiveness Analysis

01/04/2010 - Report Number: 103
This report summarises an approach developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of potential systems for use in suppression of local kitchen fires.

Understanding the New Zealand Fire Service’s Contribution to Non-fire Outcomes

01/03/2010 - Report Number: 102
The aim of this project was to develop a conceptual framework for evaluating the value and impact of the Fire Service's contribution to its non-fire outcomes and other agencies' mandates.

A Strategic Review of the New Zealand Fire Service’s Incident Data System

01/12/2009 - Report Number: 101
This report presents the results of a strategic review of the New Zealand Fire Service’s (NZFS) incident data system. The review has been undertaken to help the Fire Service improve the quality and accuracy of emergency incident reporting.

Describing the Value of the Contribution from the Volunteer Fire Brigade

01/09/2010 - Report Number: 100
This research examines the economic and social value of volunteer fire brigades in small remote communities in New Zealand. Based on desk research, a survey and interviews, it describes and measures the non-monetary benefits that a volunteer fire brigade contributes to these communities and estimates the economic value added to them.

The Economic Cost of Wildfires

01/09/2009 - Report Number: 99
This research covers three broad categories of wildfire costs. To estimate the cost of wildfires in New Zealand, BERL integrated two models, the Least Cost plus Loss (LC + L) model and the Cost plus Net Value Change (C + NVC) model. This research integrates these two models in order to capture both the immediate effects of wildfires as well as the medium and long-term economic costs. Additionally the economic cost has been divided into pre-suppression, suppression, and after fire costs. Suppression costs refer to the resources used to fight wildfires and after fire costs reflect the damage resulting from wildfires. Pre-suppression, or fire prevention, is not a direct cost of wildfire, but it is included as a third cost category in this research. Pre-suppression reduces the probability of wildfires and the associated fire damage.

An Outcome Evaluation of New Zealand Fire Service Fire Awareness and Intervention Programme

01/10/2009 - Report Number: 98
The purpose of the current study was to assess the post intervention arson recidivism rates and other offending behaviours of a group of children and adolescents referred to the New Zealand (NZ) Fire Awareness and Intervention Programme (FAIP) over an approximate follow up period of 10 years. Based on the findings and in light of current literature the report aims to provide key recommendations for the FAIP.

Sparking up an Old Flame: A Process Evaluation of the Fire Awareness and Intervention Programme (FAIP) in New Zealand

01/09/2009 - Report Number: 97
The Fire Awareness and Intervention programme is a community based treatment programme for children and adolescents who light fires. This process evaluation involved interviewing 68 participants (adolescents, parents and caregivers, programme staff and external agency staff) over a 5 month period between September 2007 and February 2008.

Validation of the Firefighter Recruitment and Selection Programme

19/11/2009 - Report Number: 96
In 2003 the New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS) adopted a competency-based recruitment programme to select trainee firefighters. The current study measured the effectiveness of the selection tests against new recruits’ performance on the job. This report presents the results of the study and discusses potential improvements in the way firefighter applicants are assessed during the recruitment and selection process.

The application of data mining and statistical techniques to identify patterns and changes in fire events

01/05/2009 - Report Number: 95
This study explores the extent to which data mining and statistical techniques might assist the Fire Service in detecting threshold and pattern changes in its spatio-temporal fire data. Three entirely different scenarios are investigated.

UFBA Conference Evaluation: a benchmark of perceived benefits and an exploration of how to improve future conferences

01/06/2009 - Report Number: 94
This research looked at the annual UFBA conference with the following objectives: • To provide a base-line measure of how effective the UFBA conference is in delivering a range of benefits to participants, the relevant brigades, and New Zealand Fire Service volunteers overall. • To identify opportunities to improve the benefits delivered and increase overall appeal of conference.

UFBA Event Evaluation: benchmarking their impact and identifying opportunities to improve

01/06/2009 - Report Number: 93
This research measured the effectiveness of the Challenge series by identifying the nature of the experience and expectations of participants. The effectiveness of the challenge events in delivering a range of benefits to the New Zealand Fire Service, the brigades, and participants was also measured as well as identify opportunities to improve the delivery of benefits.

Measurement of Rural Fire Fighter Physiological Workload

01/05/2010 - Report Number: 92
This research determined, under New Zealand operational conditions, the physiological workload of some rural firefighting tasks. At the same time, the research measured fire suppression productivity under real operational conditions. The project necessitated the development of a novel suite of data collection equipment worn by the firefighter to record visual, physiological and geographical information relevant to firefighting.

The cost of repair to fire damaged buildings

31/03/2009 - Report Number: 91
One of the roles of the New Zealand Fire Service is to limit the extent of damage to buildings from fire. To measure its effectiveness in this task the Fire Service records a significant amount of information at the site to help assess its firefighting effectiveness

Sustainability and Carbon Footprint Reduction

01/09/2008 - Report Number: 90
An estimate is made of a complete carbon footprint of greenhouse gas emissions arising from New Zealand Fire Service activities. Total emissions for the year ending 30 June 2007 are calculated as just under 10,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents.

Effectiveness of Fire Safety Systems for Use in Quantitative Risk Assessments

01/06/2008 - Report Number: 89
This research has examined the system effectiveness for sprinkler systems, alarm systems and stairwell pressurisation systems.

A Review of Existing Fire Safety in Homes

01/03/2009 - Report Number: 88
This research aimed to contribute to a reduction in the incidence and consequences of unintended fires in New Zealand households by estimating the prevalence and characteristics of risk factors across a range of dwellings and household types. These findings provided a basis for developing practical risk assessment tools and delivery mechanisms for typical and hard-to-access households

Kitchen Fire and Advertising Campaign Research

01/12/2008 - Report Number: 87
This work set out to evaluate the effectiveness of New Zealand Fire Service kitchen fire campaigns. This was done by means of 8 focus groups of various age ranges and household types (young people flatting, single males, older households).

Developing a Composite Performance Measure for the New Zealand Fire Service

10/12/2008 - Report Number: 86
The purpose of this research is to develop a single measure that provides communities and national stakeholders with assurance that the NZFS is capable and ready to respond to emergency incidents within parameters that reflect community expectations and the National Commander’s published performance targets.

Evaluation of the NZFSC Programmes, Promotions and Research for Maori

01/09/2008 - Report Number: 85
This research investigates the effectiveness of the Commission's specific Maori fire safety education programmes.

Training for Rural Firefighters: Motivators and Impediments

01/09/2008 - Report Number: 84
The aim of this research was to investigate the factors that motivate New Zealand’s rural firefighters and influence their attitudes towards training.

Prediction of Fire Weather and fire Danger

01/06/2007 - Report Number: 83
This report details the projects investigation of methods for forward prediction of severe fire weather.

Revision of the Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Home Sprinkler Systems including Sustainability

01/08/2008 - Report Number: 82
This report summarises the results of a research project investigating the cost effectiveness of home sprinkler systems incorporating sustainability aspects.

Evaluation of Firewise Programme for Year One and Two Students

01/02/2008 - Report Number: 81
This report evaluates the effectiveness of this school fire safety programme which has been in use since 2000.

Implementation of Urban Fire Spread Model as NZFS Tools

01/03/2008 - Report Number: 80
This report expands on previous research by extending the model to take into account the effects of earthquake damage on building flammability and provide different wind strength/direction during scenarios.

The Value of a Statistical Life for Regulatory Impact Statements

01/02/2007 - Report Number: 79
This report determines what monetary value can be assigned to express all the tangible and intangible values of a life lost or a life saved due to fire.

The Adequacy of Exisitng House Foundations for Resisting Earthquakes: Effect on Service Reticulation and Ignitions

01/08/2007 - Report Number: 78
This study attempted to quantify the expected reduction in post-earthquake fire losses due to remedial work on foundations, installation of flexible gas connections and seismic shut-off valves.

An updated Validation of Seasonal Fire Weather Climate Outlooks

01/11/2004 - Report Number: 77
Validation of the NIWA fire climate outlooks have been updated for the period 1999 to March 2004.

Climate and Severe Fire Seasons: Part IV

01/03/2004 - Report Number: 76
This report completes the research on relationships on severe fire seasons and climatic factors experienced in four regions of New Zealand.

Climate and Severe Fire Seasons: Part III

01/03/2003 - Report Number: 75
This report aims to identify characteristic weather patterns that cause extreme regional fire risk in Northland and Canterbury on a daily scale.

TechnologyTransfer Support Mechanism for Fire Research

01/09/2000 - Report Number: 74
This research produced the first Fire Technology Transfer Note publication. These publications will be used to extend the circulation of fire research activities.

Climate and Severe Fire Seasons: Part II New Zealand Fire Regions

01/03/2002 - Report Number: 73
This report summarises climatic patterns giving rise to severe fire seasons at a number of locations throughout New Zealand. For each region a description of the key linkages between fire severity rating and climate predictors are described.

Impact of Climate Variability on Fire Danger

01/08/2007 - Report Number: 72
This project investigated methods for forward prediction of severe fire weather. The research used innovative methods for forecasting fire risk from two to four weeks ahead for fire risk regions. It also looked at the impacts of seasonal, annual and decadal climate variability on fire danger.

The Risks, Perceptions and Experiences of Fire Among Older People

01/05/2007 - Report Number: 71
New Zealand's population is ageing and from the late 2030's it is expected that over one quarter of the population will be over the age of 65. This paper addresses the reasons for the increased residential fire risk for older people.

Operational 10-day Forecasts of Fire Weather Indices

01/04/2007 - Report Number: 70
The aim of this research was to operationally implement a 10-day forecast of fire weather indices. The forecasts were to be delivered by the MetConnect web application already in use by the fire managers.

Impact of Fire Service Activity on the Environment

01/03/2007 - Report Number: 69
The aim of this research was to understand the potential impact of fire-fighting operations on the environment and to determine the types of pollutants generated by fire-fighting activities, and how these might affect particular species and ecosystems.

NZFS Research Among People with Physical and Sensory Disabilities

01/02/2007 - Report Number: 68
The aim of this research was to explore current fire safety knowledge among people with physical and sensory disabilities, identify gaps in this knowledge and identify barriers that prevent the preparations and actions for a fire incident as recommended by the New Zealand Fire Service.

Compressed Air Foam Project

01/01/1999 - Report Number: 67
Concern has been expressed that the increasing use of compressed air foam (CAF) as a fire suppression medium may impact on forensic investigations at the fire scene. An analysis is made of CAF concentrate to determine its chemical nature and what effect it may have on commonly encountered flammable liquid accelerants found in forensic fire scenes.

Managing Non-Operational Environmental Impacts of Fire Service Activity

05/02/2007 - Report Number: 66
International best practice in managing the environmental impacts of non-emergency fire and emergency service activities at the office and station levels are identified. A review of the New Zealand Fire Service’s infrastructure and support activities was undertaken to identify how environmental aspects are currently managed.

Work-related Fatal and Non-fatal Fire Injuries in New Zealand 1985-1999

05/10/2001 - Report Number: 65
Data for 1985 to 1999 from the New Zealand Health Information Service and Accident Compensation Corporation was augmented by New Zealand Fire Service investigation reports and coronial records to identify personal, environmental and fire related factors associated with injury and death of New Zealand adults by fire in the work-place.

Medium Range Forecasts of Fire Weather Indices

01/12/2005 - Report Number: 64
Rural fire authorities use indices of fire weather and fire danger to assess current conditions, and also to anticipate future fire risk. This report describes and evaluates a forecast system that extends the lead-time at which forecasts of fire weather indices are available to beyond day-7.

International Approaches to Reducing Deliberately Lit Fires: Prevention Programmes

01/11/2006 - Report Number: 63
The aim of this research was to identify and review the implementation, operation, key elements, and success of programmes in place to prevent deliberately lit fires in New Zealand and overseas.

International Approaches to Reducing Deliberately Lit Fires: Statistical Data and Fire Investigations

01/11/2006 - Report Number: 62
The aim of this research was to review and document for New Zealand and overseas (Australia, UK, USA and Canada) the: statistical data for deliberately lit fires including the distribution across different property types and communities; fire cause investigation and reporting process including how raw data is collected; and to document figures for monetary losses in deliberately fires compared to losses incurred in all fires.

Fire Knowledge Research Qualitative Research Report

01/08/2001 - Report Number: 61
The aim of this research was to conduct qualitative research to gain a greater depth of understanding of New Zealanders' attitudes and behaviours in relation to fire safety and risk (with a focus on vulnerable audiences), and to inform and update of the NZFS' Annual Fire Knowledge Survey.

Effective Fire Safety Strategies for Pacific People

01/08/2006 - Report Number: 60
The aim of this research was to identify the social trends impacting on Pacific families, households and communities and assess what knowledge about Pacific fire risk, fire awareness and fire safety behaviours exists.

The Cost Factors and Profile of False and Unwanted Fire Alarm Activations in New Zealand

01/06/2006 - Report Number: 59
The aim of this research was to undertake qualitative and quantitative analysis of fire alarm activation data and data from case studies, to provide a detailed and accurate information base that will contribute substantially to the efforts to reduce the number of unwanted fire alarm activations in New Zealand.

Fire Loss Reduction in Industrial Buildings - Risk Cost Benefit Study

13/07/2006 - Report Number: 58
This project investigated the cost-effectiveness of different fire protection strategies for use in industrial buildings in New Zealand, and developed a risk cost benefit model using @RISK to estimate the cost of fire in industrial buildings.

Fire Risk Management Hand book

04/05/2006 - Report Number: 57
This research prepared this handbook, with the assistance of Standards New Zealand Committee P 4525 Fire Risk Management, in accordance with the joint Standard AS/NZS4360 Risk management and SAA/SNZ HB 436 Risk management guidelines to enable better management of fire risks in places of work.

Code of Practice for Fire fighting Water Supplies: An Indicative Cost Benefit Analysis

18/11/2004 - Report Number: 56
The NZFS Code of Practice for Fire Fighting Water Supplies was reviewed against other countries legislative regimes and initiatives, to see how it compared to international best practice.

Spatial Prediction of Wildfire Hazard Across New Zealand: A Significant Upgrade

01/09/2005 - Report Number: 55
The objective of this project was to develop new high-resolution, 25m grid data layers to describe the wild fire hazard across New Zealand, utilising improved data sources like the Landcover Database 2 which was developed after the first iteration of this research in 2001.

Analysis of the Revised Purposes of the Building Act 2004

12/09/2005 - Report Number: 54
The objective of this study is to analyse the Building Act 2004, to assess the changes affecting fire safety in buildings, and to identify the contribution that fire safety can make toward the revised purposes and principles of the Act.

The Cost of Managing the Risk of Fire in New Zealand

01/05/2005 - Report Number: 53
The actual economic cost of fire to New Zealand is determined. Distinction is made between the costs of fire risk management (including the costs of reducing the risk of fire and the costs of readiness and response to fire) and the consequential recovery costs of an actual fire.

Fire Safety Regulation for Non-residential Buildings

01/09/2004 - Report Number: 52
The efficiency and effectiveness of the NZ regulatory structure in achieving fire safety in commercial, industrial and community buildings is considered.

Developing Indicators of Household Risk and Targeting Interventions

01/07/2005 - Report Number: 51
This research was conducted to improve our understanding of the links between fire risk and household stability and composition.

Impact of Climate Change on Long-term Fire Danger

01/05/2005 - Report Number: 50
This research report details the findings of likely changes in fire danger under scenarios of climate change for New Zealand.

Final Report Optimal Mapping and Interpretation of Fire Weather Information

30/06/2005 - Report Number: 49
Accurate weather information is vital for fire risk management in New Zealand. The current NZ fire weather station network comprises over 140 fire Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS), supplemented with observations from an additional 30 or so MetService stations during the fire season.

Guidelines for Identifying and Preventing Fire Risks to Heritage Buildings and collections

30/06/2005 - Report Number: 48
This paper outlines the issues regarding fire safety identified by the stakeholders (New Zealand Historic Places Trust, Museums Aotearoa, Department of Conservation, Local Government Agencies, Te Papa National Services, New Zealand Professional Conservators Group and Federation of Maori Authorities); international and national methods of dealing with the identification and prevention of fire risks in heritage buildings and cultural collections; the need for national policies to guide heritage agencies and the owners and managers of the heritage buildings and collections; and the steps which owners and managers can take to identify and prevent the risks of fire in their historic buildings and heritage collections.

Human Behaviour Contributing to Unintentional Residential Fire Deaths 1997-2003

04/02/2005 - Report Number: 47
This report considers the role of the behaviour of victims (and others) in regard to fire ignition and consequent fatalities in 131 unintentional New Zealand residential fire deaths between 1997—2003.

Adolescent Firesetting: a NZ case-controlled study of risk factors for adolescent firesetters

01/01/2004 - Report Number: 46
This study explores the personality patterns, coping responses, behaviour problems and family environments of adolescent males involved in firesetting.

Improving the Fire Performance of Polystyrene Insulated Panel in New Zealand

01/04/2004 - Report Number: 45
This project focussed on improving the performance of polystyrene insulated panels (PIP) in New Zealand.

Modelling Fire-Spread In and Around Urban Centres

01/12/2003 - Report Number: 44
Two previously developed GIS models — a static and dynamic mode — were populated with data for buildings in Wellington city and simulations run to determine the consequence of postearthquake fire.

Assessing and Selecting High Performing Fire Service Recruits of the Future

01/01/2003 - Report Number: 43
The firefighter selection process currently used by the New Zealand Fire Service (NZFS) was reviewed to determine potential improvements to the competencies and selection tests on which firefighter applicants are assessed.

A Framework for Social Research funded through the New Zealand Fire Service Research Fund

05/09/2003 - Report Number: 42
This report reviewed the research that had previously been conducted through the Contestable Research Fund to determine if there were research areas or questions that may have been overlooked in its first five years of operation.

PEER REVIEW Costs and Benefits of Regulating Fire Safety Performance of Upholstered Furniture in New Zealand

01/08/2003 - Report Number: 41
This report reviews a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) undertaken for the New Zealand Fire Service Commission, entitled the “Cost and Benefits of Regulating Fire Safety Performance of Upholstered Furniture in New Zealand - Wade C A, Duncanson M, O’Dea D O&Duncan C R, BRANZ Report No. FCR 8 March 2003”.

Impact on Life Safety of the Type 5 Alarm

30/05/2003 - Report Number: 40
The June 2001 revision of the New Zealand Building Code ‘Approved Document C/AS1’ for fire safety (BIA 2001) introduced a new type of fire safety precaution (FSP).

A Fire Danger Climatology for New Zealand

30/05/2003 - Report Number: 39
The principal objective of the project was to extend and improve the New Zealand fire climatology analysis undertaken by Pearce (1996).

Fire following earthquake: Identifying key issues for New Zealand

01/10/2002 - Report Number: 38
Fire Following Earthquake is a complex subject, involving many sequential and situational components. Much of the research work carried out to date has focused on the development of analytical models which capture these components, and more recently creating linkages with GIS packages.

Fire Safety in small tourist accommodation businesses: working towards developing best practice model

05/03/2003 - Report Number: 37
In spite of recent initiatives by the New Zealand Fire Service to reduce the risk of fire in small businesses in the tourist accommodation industry, there had been little or no research into fire safety in this sector. The intention of this study was to address this lack of information by investigating the fire safety issues facing those operating in this sector and to examine both the relationship between the small business sector and the New Zealand Fire Service and role played by small business stakeholders in fire safety in small tourist accommodation businesses.

Recruitment and retention of women volunteers within the Fire Service

18/03/2003 - Report Number: 36
The primary objectives of this study were to: develop a profile of female volunteers in the New Zealand Fire Service; and provide direction for strategies which will aid in the recruitment and retention of women in the fire service.

Costs and benefits of regulating Fire Safety performance of upholstered furniture in NZ

31/03/2003 - Report Number: 35
The aim of the research was to provide an independent assessment of the likely costs and benefits associated with introducing new regulations to improve the fire safety of upholstered furniture in New Zealand.

The New Zealand Volunteer Fire Service in 3 Rural Communities in Northland

01/03/2002 - Report Number: 34
This project looked at rural volunteer fire services in three relatively isolated communities on Northland’s east coast. It examined the social and administrative structure within which they operate, as well as issues affecting rural fire services generally. Ways in which these services might be strengthened were explored, and specific recommendations made.

Hospitalisation for non-fatal injury as a result of unintentional domestic fire incidents: New Zealand 1996-2000

05/12/2002 - Report Number: 33
This study highlights the difficulties of trying to link the New Zealand Fire Service Fire Incident Reporting System data on fire related injuries to that held in the New Zealand Health Information Service with links being found for very few records.

Fire incidents resulting in deaths of New Zealanders aged 65 and older 1991-1997

01/03/2001 - Report Number: 32
A methodology is outlined for collating fire fatality data from the Fire Incident Recording System and New Zealand Health Information Service and linking with coroners' files to provide a comprehensive account of fire-related deaths in New Zealanders aged 65 and older in domestic fire incidents.

Fire incidents resulting in deaths of New Zealanders aged 15-64 years 1991-1997

10/09/2001 - Report Number: 31
A methodology is outlined for collating fire fatality data from the Fire Incident Recording System and New Zealand Health Information Service and linking with coroners' files to provide a comprehensive account of fire-related deaths in New Zealanders aged between 15 and 64 years in domestic fire incidents.

Fire incidents resulting in deaths of New Zealand children aged under 15 years 1991-1997

01/09/2001 - Report Number: 30
A methodology is outlined for collating fire fatality data from the Fire Incident Recording System and New Zealand Health Information Service and linking with coroners' files to provide a comprehensive account of fire-related deaths in New Zealanders under 15 years.

Overview of fire-related mortality data for New Zealand 1991-1997

01/12/2001 - Report Number: 29
A methodology is developed for collating fire fatality data from the Fire Incident Recording System and New Zealand Health Information Service and linking with coroners’ files to provide a comprehensive account of fire-related deaths in Aotearoa New Zealand.

An Economic Assessment of Industrial fires in New Zealand

01/01/2002 - Report Number: 28
The objective of this study was to make an assessment of the economic impact of industrial fires in New Zealand.

Estimating Risks from Fire Following Earthquake

01/01/2002 - Report Number: 27
The aim of the work was to develop practical tools for modelling and visualising the spread of post-earthquake fire, and then to use the tools to improve understanding of the hazard affecting major urban areas and to help identify appropriate strategies for reducing consequent losses.

School Fires in New Zealand

01/02/2002 - Report Number: 26
The overall aim of this project was to help raise awareness of the factors contributing to school fires, and their implications for individual schools, communities, and New Zealand as a whole.

Vulnerability And The Translation Of Safety Knowledge

01/02/2002 - Report Number: 25
This research highlighted the value of having firefighters reflect the diversity of the community (in terms of cultural groups) to ensure that they are well trained and resourced to promote fire safety in ways that are sensitive to the needs of specific at-risk groups.

Prediction of Rural Fire Risk for the Wellington Region

01/11/2001 - Report Number: 24
This research proved the feasibility of using generalized regression analysis and spatial prediction methodology to show spatially explicit predictions of fire risk.

Report 23: Developing a Strategy to Nurture, Enhance, and Expand the Volunteer Fire Brigade

01/10/2001 - Report Number: 23
The primary objectives of this study were to develop a profile of volunteers in the NZFS and to provide direction for strategies that will nurture, enhance and expand the volunteer fire brigade movement, including increasing the number of Maori and female volunteers.

Spatial Prediction of Wildfire Hazard Across New Zealand

01/06/2001 - Report Number: 22
Digital maps of wildfire hazard established key inputs to the subsequent prediction of spatial variation in Wildfire Threat Analysis.

Fire Behaviour as a Factor in Forest and Rural Fire Suppression

01/11/2001 - Report Number: 21
This paper provides an overview on the fundamental characteristics associated with the behaviour of free-burning fires as it influences fire control operations, based primarily on a review of the overseas literature and current developments in the field of wildland fire management.

A Flammability Guide for Some Common New Zealand Native Tree and Shrub Species

01/11/2001 - Report Number: 20
The report summarises the methodology used to produce the brochure Flammability of Native Plant Species: a guide to reducing fire hazard around your home.

The Ecotoxicity of Fire-Water Runoff. Part Three: Proposed Framework for Risk Management

01/08/2001 - Report Number: 19
The key elements involved in the prioritisation of hazards from fire water run-of are identified and a risk ranking framework was proposed.

The Ecotoxicity of Fire-Water Runoff. Part Two: Analytical Results

01/08/2001 - Report Number: 18
This research found that the undiluted runoff from five fires would be acutely lethal to aquatic life.

The Ecotoxicity of Fire-Water Runoff. Part One: Review of the Literature

01/08/2001 - Report Number: 17
This report provides a review of the literature on the ecotoxic effects, risks, and management of fire-water run-off.

Cooking, alcohol and unintentional fatal fires in New Zealand homes 1991-1997

01/05/2001 - Report Number: 16
Of the 20 fatal incidents studied, alcohol was found to be a factor in 12 of them.

Analysis of Vehicle Fires using the In-Depth Fatal Accident Database

01/06/2001 - Report Number: 15
Fire Incident databases were compared with vehicle accident databases. If an accident involved a fire it was about ten times more likely to involve death than other accidents.

Interventions in Maori House Fire Mortality Rates

01/06/2001 - Report Number: 14
This report indicates that an Interagency Taskforce focusing on the development of a series of joint venture Fire Awareness campaigns (involving the Fire Service, other Government agencies and existing Maori Social Service Providers) will be effective in delivering fire awareness programmes and environmental interventions to Maori.

Unintentional Fire-Related Child Injuries in Auckland 1989-1998

01/06/2001 - Report Number: 13
The home environment (including yard, outbuildings, and driveway) was the most common place of fire-related injury resulting in death (95 percent) and hospitalisation (93 percent) of children.

Scoping a Social Marketing Programme for Fire Safety Research in the Community

01/04/2001 - Report Number: 12
The report suggests that better outcomes might be achieved if promotion focussed less on mass media advertising, which changes awareness, and more on research into messages tailored to each target audience in order to change behaviour (a social marketing model).

Climate and Severe Fire Seasons

01/03/2001 - Report Number: 11
The analysis shows very strong correlations between some of the climatic predictors and vegetation fire danger.

Report 10: A Pilot Study to Identify Strategies to Assess Vegetation Fire Hazards

01/02/2001 - Report Number: 10
This project set out to establish the feasibilty and effectiveness of a method to determine the geographical distribution of vegetation fire hazard. This would provide a basis for planning more effective fire attack methods, identifcation of hazards to fire fighting staff and locations of greatest hazard to property and buildings.

Fire Safety as an Interactive Phenomenon

01/02/2001 - Report Number: 9
The research highlights the complexity of the interactions when fire fighters talk with residents about fire safety in their own homes.

Improving the Fire Safety Knowledge & Practices of Vulnerable Groups

01/06/2000 - Report Number: 8
This research identified the most at-risk groups in the community and how to communicate wiith them.

Follow-up survey of Auahi Whatatupato smoke alarm installation project in Eastern BoP

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 7
This report showed that 6 months to two and a half years after installation 72% of homes still had one functioning smoke alarm.

Where in NZ have fatal domestic fires occurred? Descriptive analysis of data 1986 - 1998

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 6
This report shows the geographic distribution of fatal structural fire incidents in New Zealand from July 1996 to June 1998, at census meshblock and territorial authority level.

Social & economic deprivation and fatal unintentional domestic fires in NZ 1988 - 1998

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 5
The first report to establish a spatial correlation between social and economic deprivation and fire fatalities.

Risk assessment & cost benefit analysis of corridor smoke detectors on rest homes

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 4
A computer fire model was used to carry out fire growth and smoke development calculations to determine when the smoke detectors and sprinklers activate and when conditions become untenable for life in the means of egress in a rest home.

A strategy for developing greater responsibility for fire safety and prevention

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 3
The study concludes with a series of recommendations for action to help the Fire Service in its communications based on survey of peoples behaviour across the country.

Determining Effective Fire Safety Strategies for Maori

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 2
This study revealed that Maori undertook less safe fire practices and recommended ways in which Maori communities preferred to be communicated with.

Cost Effective Domestic Fire Sprinkler Systems

01/08/2000 - Report Number: 1
This cost benefit study led to the development of a practical home sprinkler design and new NZFS fire safety campaign.